Number 99 at last!!

HOME AT LAST, to the final visit in my tour of Iowa’s 99 counties: my home for 20-some years, Marion County! In fact, this wetland is right on the campus of my home institution, Central College, where I’ve worked since moving to Iowa.

It seemed fitting to profile a site in my own backyard, as a sort of homecoming. Better still, I can turn over the blog to my students for this one! They’ve worked hard at the site, an old farm pond on the west end of campus, and I will let them tell the story. Please visit the web page they created as part of a group project for my colleague’s class (link below). But first, let me add a little background for context…

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The environs near the wetland/pond, part of the athletic complex. Service Day started with a rare October snow…melted off as the day warmed.

This pond has been used for years, by myself and other profs, for aquatic ecology activities. When we did bathymetry in Limnology class years ago, we found the bottom to be fairly uniform, with firm footing and water depth of about 60-70 cm throughout. Obviously siltation has occurred since then, and it is shallower and more “squishy.” However, the notched outflow on the berm (earthen dam) has eroded a bit, likely to decrease the maximum water depth as well.

As far as I know, runoff from surrounding grassy fields—combination golf practice area and cross-country course—provides the sole water input aside from direct precipitation falling on the surface. During dry weather, no water flows out; however I haven’t seen the pond actually dry.

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The pond is visible in the right half of this photo. It is almost completely covered by the tiny duckweed plants. Extensive trees and brush surrounded the pond before the crew got to work

The pond has minimal emergent macrophytes (cattail, bulrush) around the edge. Filamentous algal blooms in early Spring are followed by a thick covering of Duckweed, so an impetus for the project was my observations that the duckweed diminished both the habitat quality and our ability to use the pond. I suspected that clearing the dense plant growth from the slopes around the pond might help reduce the duckweed, and facilitate access for visitors.

Link to the student web page:

https://storymaps.arcgis.com/stories/6cd2c0ff4997425d8063650c97589e34

Pretty great, isn’t it? They did an outstanding job with both organizing a Service Day project (and follow-up extra work day), and then all the additional analyses. The web page tells the story, although there’s yet another product of their labors (I’ll share THAT, next week).

This is the last of the 99 wetlands for my epic trek across Iowa…but this is certainly not the end of the story. This campus wetland will allow this coming semester’s classes, and many well into the future, to learn more about wetlands and their inhabitants and functioning. I’m looking forward to that. But beyond this, I believe we need to step back and review the journey, and consider what it all means. Come back next week for my musings on 99wetlands, and beyond. Thanks for visiting!!

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TEAMWORK. I really do appreciate the student’s hard work and the willingness of my colleague to “loan” me her Environmental Studies class…

Ecosystem Sales and Service…

In days past, at the end of every email I sent out was my name and address and the tagline “Ecosystem Sales & Service…at Reasonable Rates!” I thought I was pretty cute and clever, but it also served to prompt the question: why do we build wetlands, and how will we know if we’re doing it properly? It’s a type of question that is both obvious and yet far more complex than at first seems. It’s also imperative to answer, and worthy of the efforts of many smart, hard-working wetland scientists.

And so I found myself last August in Winnebago County with Paul Bartelt, a colleague  at Waldorf University. He is familiar with my interest in how wetlands function, especially how the presence of different plants may be important.  As it happens, Paul has for years been studying animals in wetlands, and as we chatted recently, we realized we both were curious about amphibians such as frogs, toads, and salamanders.

DSC_0493Amphibians seem a good candidate to show us how wetlands function: they spend their entire lives, or at least their most vulnerable juvenile stages, in wetlands. Breathing through and absorbing toxins across their skin, being “cold-blooded” and responding to changes in weather and climate, being sensitive to various pathogens…amphibians may be “the canary in the coal mine” for wetland stresses, or strong evidence for success when we do things right. And Paul knows amphibians and wetlands, even tracking the movements of individual animals with telemetry (radio transmitters). Tricky work.

DSC_0487As we visited several field sites together, we were discussing population-level questions: how do amphibian numbers and diversity compare across wetlands of different ages? How does the type and structure of cattails or other plants affect amphibian population ecology? In general, how can we better understand the function of Iowa wetlands? I’m fortunate that Paul has access to a group of sites restored up to 30 years ago, and that some have multiple basins. Even better, Paul is a personable guy and referred to conversations with local landowners—knowing and working with them can make all the difference.

Perhaps in future posts, I can detail specifics of the research. I do hope that Paul and I find some way to collaborate, perhaps with Lakeside Lab classes. His previous work has provided fascinating insights into Iowa animal life. I’m hoping that we can not only better understand the population ecology of amphibians, but also use that knowledge to help us better manage our lands and water. For example, during our conversation in the field, I learned that small but thoughtful actions by a landowner can greatly increase the ability of frogs or toads to move between sites, find food or safe spaces to rest, and in general avoid a fate Paul referred to as “toad jerky.” (yes, it’s what you’re imagining…). If I learn such helpful strategies, you’ll hear about it here at 99wetlands! Thanks for reading.

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In Good Hands…

DSC_0131Last year, I visited The Land of the Swamp White Oak Preserve, in Muscatine County. This 4,000-acre (1600-hectare) facility is truly outstanding, and open to the public. I recommend a visit! Let me tell you why this place is so special, and show a few photos and stories. We start with some Oak…but note that it blends with Willow, sedges, and glorious, sticky  mud.

DSC_0149As I’ve explained in past posts, the concept of “public land” varies widely. Who owns a property, who may visit, various uses and maintenance of the land can all differ. My observations suggest that the Nature Conservancy is a most pragmatic organization, focused on preserving the ecological integrity of the land forever. That goal still allows for a variety of ownership, partnership, care, and use. For example, I’ve stayed on a facility that had a beautiful cabin for groups (like my Ecology class) and yet is also was a working ranch. Other sites may allow only very restricted use. Land may be privately owned, and even worked, with the conservation goals nevertheless achieved through partnerships and various legal arrangements.

This particular property has a focus on wetlands and savanna habitats, and the amphibians, reptiles, and other animals found there. Dale and his crew from the local office showed me around, answering questions and explaining their work. It’s impressive! Let’s start with a look at some of those “herps,” the amphibians and reptiles.

Perhaps the variety and abundance of reptiles and amphibians tell us more about the quality and health of the wetland ecosystem, than any other indicator. These animals are exquisitely sensitive to disruptions of water dynamics and chemistry, weather patterns, alteration of structures in the habitat, etc. I’m delighted to report the presence of many such species, a few of which I got to see close-up! Check out the Newt with its bright yellow belly, or the fancy scutes (think treads on an armored vehicle) on a snake.

Care for some Arthopods? I’ve got some photos from around the site. Land, water, or…both? Check out the Mantis, some Odonates (Dragonfly/Damselfly nymph). Dale had a dip net, and we sampled slough, fen, and pond waters.

These habitats (and nearby uplands) are ideal for Crustaceans, and I love this duel of the great pincers. (Hey…what do YOU call these guys? Leave a comment with your preferred common name.)DSC_0217

This place is fun, even if you never see that wildlife. Just a nice walk along a stream, a bounce on the quaking peat, beating through a “reedswamp,” or rolling logs in a floodplain Bottomland Forest. This is time well-spent, and an amazing beauty to linger and appreciate.

I’m gladdened that The Nature Conservancy will protect this unique, ecologically-important site. Even more, I was delighted to interact with such dedicated, energetic young conservationists. With friends like these, our wetlands are in good hands.

 

 

Looking in holes for rattlers!

DSC_0094Yes, my idea of fun is squishing around a wetland looking for venomous snakes! But, where to even look? Well, “I know a guy.” Dr. Steve Main, a retired colleague from Wartburg College, spends time at Lakeside Lab every summer. We’ve enjoyed many chats about Iowa nature (and wetlands!), and he invited to host me when I visited Bremer County. Turns out, he showed me around two different wetlands, and he and his wife were kind enough to put me up for the night and feed me, too. I had a great visit!

DSC_0071Full disclosure: I seem to be the “Anti-Dr. Doolittle.” I should have warned Steve before the visit: people taking me out to view nature all too often mention that on similar trips—without me present—they find the (bird/blooming flower/butterfly/whatever), but with me present…no luck. Such it was with the “Swamp Rattler,” the Massassauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus) at a site near the Wapsie River. Such a wetland has a soggy meadow dotted with “mud volcanoes” made by crayfish (crawfish? crawdads? I’m ecumenical regarding Crustacean names). These holes in the ground lead to a tunnel suitable for overwintering by the snakes. And those (imperiled) snakes are found in these wetlands.

This isn’t the big, noisy rattlesnake sunning on a rock, familiar from Western movies. It’s likely to be in dense vegetation, and hard to see. And unfortunately, there aren’t too many to see—they are endangered in Iowa. It causes quite the excitement when seen.

DSC_0088No worries, we still saw plenty of wetland beauty: an excellent population of Pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata), various Bulrush, Smartweeds, water-lily, Dock, and more. And really, wetland conservation is a package deal: protecting and managing habitat for a snake also benefits the other reptiles, and amphibians, and birds and insects…you get the idea.

Steve generously took additional time and showed me a large nearby DNR wetland complex, Sweet Marsh. We enjoyed the birds, butterflies, and frogs. But I was especially excited to see my beloved tall wetland plants. A healthy stand of Common (Broad-leaved) Cattail, Typha latifolia. We so often see the narrow-leaved species (T. angustifolia) or the hybrid between them (T. x glauca). Even more exciting was a stand of Wild Rice (Zizania sp.)! Despite the various waters named “Rice Lake” you may know, I don’t see it growing in the wild in Iowa too often. I’ll be sure to discuss this when I teach Ethnobotany next semester. I was also pleased to pass this along to some practitioners of traditional plant uses. (Wetland networking at its finest!)

What a great time I had exploring these wetlands, talking shop with a colleague and friend, and celebrating these special places. And now, you’ve joined the fun. Please join me on my remaining wetland adventures, won’t you?DSC_0109

Fractals in the Wetland

DSC_0252It’s surprising what my wandering mind will stumble upon during my wetland wanderings. On a recent walkabout at Littlefield Recreation Area in Audubon County, I was thinking about fractals, of all things! It actually made sense in context, and may be helpful to bear in mind when thinking about habitats and the living things therein.

Fractals are a concept from mathematics, applicable to art and ecology and many other topics. The idea is that a geometric pattern repeats itself across scales: a certain shape is contained within a larger version of that same shape, and also has within it smaller versions of that shape, and so on. They make beautiful and interesting designs for illustrations, but I wonder if they might also apply in an ecological sense for wetlands?

DSC_0258If any ecosystem could be a fractal, wetlands are likely to do it. An aerial view of Littlefield shows a variety of watery habitats, from the 70-acre (28 hectare) lake, to a pond, ditches or swales, wetlands, streams, and various connections between all of them. I’m unfamiliar with this site, but such places sometimes have high water spreading across the land and submerging it all, or dry conditions where low wet spots are isolated or even dry up entirely. The variable hydrology of wetlands makes them larger, smaller, connected, disconnected…perhaps a fractal pattern across the land, and over time?

The idea of “winking patches” in landscape ecology, where habitats appear and vanish, would have profound implications for organisms. As one example, think about frogs and toads. The concern about “amphibian decline” has a lot of attention as populations, and whole species, are in danger of being lost forever. But having habitats where predators or diseases can’t establish, because of their ephemeral nature, can be really important. The long-term stability of an amphibian is accomplished through short-term, unpredictable or temporary habitats.

DSC_0259The ponds and wetlands and lake may connect by surface water during wet times, and groundwater at other times. But algae and bacteria and seeds will blow around the site at other times, too. Animals will hop and crawl and slither and fly between the various habitats. And it’s all part of a larger network of inter connected ecosystems, too. Streams flow onto this property, are dammed to form ponds or lakes, and then release to contribute to streams and rivers running downslope from here. A map of Audubon, like many Iowa counties, has wiggling blue lines joining together here and there, giving an overall impression of a tree: the aptly-named “dendritic drainage” (from the Greek word for tree, Dendros).

So although the old adage may be true that “we all live downstream,” that’s only part of the story here. We all live in a fractal landscape, perhaps. Thinking about the little habitats, and the larger landscapes to which they contribute, and the connections between these fractal elements, may help us both better appreciate and care for our wetlands.

Perhaps that would be a worthy resolution for us. (Happy New Year!!)DSC_0254

Cattail As Architect

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Anna (left) with Central Iowa cattails

Meet Anna.

Anna & I have been busy this summer conducting research in…you guessed it…wetlands. Specifically, we have surveyed several sites in central Iowa, collecting data on cattail growth form and habitat. The basic question we hope to answer is “how similar are the plants we find, to Broad-leaved cattail (T. latifolia), to Narrow-leaved cattail (T. angustifolia), or to their hybrid (T. x glauca)?” Other researchers are calling into question our past identification of the species, and recent work has suggested that whatever the species identity, growth form has important ecological consequences (especially after the above-ground parts die back and become litter). We aim to investigate what all this might mean. We’re also wondering if we can relate growth form—what I sometimes refer to as “plant architecture”— to interactions with the rest of the wetland.

Watch for future posts with findings from that research. I imagine this to be ongoing work, involving future collaborations with students and faculty colleagues. The questions seem important, since cattail is so common (and often dominant) in our wetlands. My 99wetland wanderings frequently bring me into contact with cattail, all over Iowa.

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A sea of cattails ring Finn Pond

A recent visit to Finn Pond in Greene County provided some inspiration for my cattail curiosity. There’s plenty of cattails on this approximately 20-acre (8-hectare) wetland. Such a large site feels rather like a sea, or perhaps more colorfully described as a cattail jungle? Towering over my head, and so dense I can see less than arm’s-length in front of me, the cattails feel like an impenetrable thicket. Wouldn’t a wall of cattail be an interesting and important ecological phenomenon? How would this habitat compare to shorter, more sparse, or more diverse, vegetation?

I encounter several animals in the cattails in just a short walk. I imagine the structural characteristics of cattail leaves would be of great significance to birds. At least, if I were building a suspended nest attached to cattail leaves, I’d consider whether they were rigid, or slippery, or tall, or…well, any of the specs of this construction material of the marsh. Then I stop and look closely at the cattail…

DSC_0404Snails glide on the cattails as they scrape food off the leaf surfaces. I was surprised to find them congregating on the flower spikes, high above the water..actually, up above my head in some cases! What they are doing up there I can’t say—leave your thought in the Comments section.

DSC_0410Almost certainly, dragonflies will be affected by cattail architecture. As larvae, they swim in the water around the cattails, and frequently crawl up a cattail stem when it’s time to molt their juvenile exoskeleton and emerge to fly away. Here at Finn Pond, I watched an adult Widow Skimmer (Libellula luctuosa) as it perched on cattail leaves between flights, glamorous in its bright “racing stripes” and skillful in flight.

Later, I recalled these animal sightings, and what I know about the processes at work in wetland ecosystems. Anna and I talked a lot about how things work in a “cattail marsh,” and how the plant architecture might be important. I’m encouraged by the intriguing ideas we discussed, and delighted to explore Iowa wetlands, learning side-by-side with my student-collaborator. And I invite you to read future blog posts, and learn right along with us!

Noticing the little animals

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This frog has sprouted legs, but needs more time before maturing to adulthood

Most of these blog posts are about Big Things, taking a whole-ecosystem or landscape-level view of wetlands. No surprise, as my PhD work was a big project advised by a big thinker. But, I do enjoy a close look at the little things, and in particular if I have a dip net with me at a wetland, it’s fun to get up close and personal with the animal life. At Christy Pond in Carroll County, I did just that.

You’ll most likely find the animals near plants which provide cover (shade, hiding space). Big “emergent” plants like cattail and bulrushes grow up out of the water, but how about Common Bladderwort (Utricularia macrorhiza)? This species holds pretty yellow flowers up in the air, but is a tangle of stems in the water. Attached to those submersed stems are bag-like traps (bladders) which catch and digest animals. (Admittedly, they will catch only really tiny animals).

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Bladderwort plant with aerial stem bearing flower, and a tangle of bladder-laden aquatic stems

You’ll find plenty of “primitive” or “lower” animals in a wetland pond. Sneer at them if you wish, but their lineage goes waaaaayyy back, and they have been very successful at what they do, for a very long time. For example, few animal movements are as graceful as a leech swimming, it’s like a ribbon undulating in watery flight. Snails adhere (even upside-down) to slippery, slimy surfaces, using a mouth shaped like a paint scraper to graze on surface growths.

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Medicinal leech with a bunch of snail comrades

Amphibian larvae (tadpoles or polliwogs) come in many forms, some hopping about on land in one season; some frogs take years to develop in the pond, becoming in some cases almost as large as your fist!

I should probably have a whole blog just for aquatic insects—so diverse in form and lifestyle and rich in species. Let’s look at this water bug as just one representative. Now, I’ve heard people refer to just about anything as a “bug,” from butterflies to earthworms (seriously!). But technically, a “true bug” is a particular type of insect with sucking mouth parts. Either as a member of the Hemiptera (“half-wing”) or specifically grouped as Heteroptera (“different-wings”), they all wear the mark of their clan on their back: a big X where the wings cross (one folded over the other). The leading portion of the wing (forewing) has a heavy, protective texture (it even looks like a shield!), while the trailing portion (hindwing) is thin and flexible. To my eye, this animal looks like a little, streamlined dinosaur. Fierce and beautiful.

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Water bug, ventral (belly) surface…sorry, I didn’t get a photo of the X-back.

If you visit this park, bring a snack. The wetland is on the lower part of the property, but near the street is the old farmstead. It’s a nice shady spot to rest, and you can even explore an old farm outbuilding. All in all, I’d call this an excellent spot to experience rural Iowa and its wetland life. Enjoy!!

Mapping this blog…

Feb2019_map

A friend and regular reader pestered me for update on the 99wetlands project, with a special request for info on blog visitors with a MAP. Although on “semi-hiatus,” here’s a brief rundown. (If you have questions or suggestions, add a Comment below, or Contact Me).

The map above indicates where my readers live. I’ve had about 13,000 “views” or individual pages read by a visitor—some visitors read several pages at a time. As you can see, those readers live all over (58 countries represented), although the vast majority reside here in the USA. As might be expected, many visitors live in countries where English is widely spoken. African visitors are few. I might get a few more Latin Americans when I post about some Mexican wetlands in a few weeks, using some Spanish terms for wetland features.

DSC_0433To date, I have visited and blogged about wetlands in 85 out of the 99 Iowa counties. The remaining counties are clustered in the west and north of the state. I have visited countries in no particular order; really it’s been determined by other travels (family or business trips) or clusters of counties I’d visit together out of convenience (sometimes with an overnight stay in the area). I’m also sort of saving my home county for last, since I thought it would be a nice ending to the project—we’ll see if that works out.

This 99wetlands journey has been built on a certain geography, but is really about thematic connections. For example, the water in northern Iowa counties may flow downstream to affect residents in southern counties, or leave Iowa and join the Mississippi or Missouri Rivers, and eventually the Gulf of Mexico. A bird I will soon observe in southern Mexico might very well fly to Iowa this Spring, raising a family. The politicians who traipse across Iowa seeking support of its residents in a campaign, might later enact policies affecting our wetlands (and our way of life generally).

We grow as individuals, and make better decisions collectively, when we see connections. Recognizing the ecologic, economic, cultural and other connections between us and our wetlands, and with each other, is important to me. I’m pleased to be part of a community founded by immigrants. I’m proud of the contributions Iowa makes to benefit our friends and neighbors elsewhere. I hope this blog can help us appreciate the wetlands, and also help bring us together in conversation. Thanks for joining us!Calamus_Paul_square

 

 

Input on WOTUS rule…?

DSC_0195Americans are encouraged to provide feedback and guidance on a proposed change in how the Nation defines, and therefore protects, our wetlands. The comment period ends on Tax Day (April 15). I hope you’ll have your say!

At issue is how to define “Waters of the United States” (WOTUS) which are the lakes, rivers, wetlands, and similar water bodies to be regulated by the Clean Water Act (CWA). President Trump ordered Federal agencies to look at the issue, and propose a new rule to define and regulate WOTUS. The proposed rule and related information, including how to comment on the proposed change, and the written public comments already received, may be found on-line at those links. Readers of this blog might very well wish to input on specifics of the proposal, or simply express support for a particular point of view regarding the issue. (All public input is solicited).

A consortium of nine different aquatic-related societies issued a statement in December about this proposed change. None other than Iowa State University Professor and past President of the Society of Wetland Scientists, Arnold van der Valk, is quoted in the statement:

“It will result in the loss of many of the nation’s wetlands. This decision is shortsighted and counterproductive. It will significantly reduce the multitude of ecosystem services that these wetlands currently provide us at no cost. As a result the taxpayers will have to pay to build elaborate and expensive infrastructure to replace these free ecosystem services, such as flood reduction
and cleaning up polluted water.”

…and he is 100% correct. This rule will result in the Nation losing many wetlands, and all the services they render.

I also recommend a New York Times article on the issue:

Regular readers of this blog have heard my thoughts on why wetlands should be protected, i.e. the various important work they do. New visitors (welcome!!) or those wishing a review might consider clicking on the “tags” in the sidebar for categories of “ecosystem services,” listed under Hydrology, Pollution, and so forth.

“But Paul,” you say. “How would a rewording of the definition of ‘Waters of the United States’ affect wetlands?” Because most of the wetlands in the USA will be protected (or not) through the Section 404 provision of the Clean Water Act. If wetlands are WOTUS, then the US Army Corps of Engineers must regulate their physical structure (“dredge and fill”) and the EPA must regulate their water quality. But if wetlands are not WOTUS, then…individual States may choose to protect them, or not.

DSC_0235Supposedly this new rule will “…increase predictability and consistency…” of wetlands regulations, and that certainly sounds appealing. But actually, since 1986 the Federal government has had a Rule about WOTUS that was, more or less, consistent and effective. In 1987, the Corps of Engineers published a Manual for determining what is/is not (i.e., delineating) a wetland based on that Rule. Although an Obama-era rule tweaked it slightly, the 1987 Manual, and the Rule it’s based on, has worked just fine. That’s over 30 years of practice—and this new Rule proposes to stick to it, with an important difference: adjacency.

The new Rule would require a wetland (as defined by the 1987 Manual) to be physically adjacent (“abut”), and connected to, a surface water body relating to other WOTUS (“jurisdictional waters”). In other words, a wetland must have a surface flow (in or out) connecting to a stream, river, lake, or other waterway already considered a WOTUS. That surface water flow or connection must exist in a “typical year,” not just a year with high water (i.e., flooding conditions).

I admire the honesty of frank statements in the Federal Register regarding what this rule is designed to do: eliminate protection for all wetlands not linked by a surface water flow to other WOTUS. Here are specific quotations:

(the proposed rule) would exclude isolated wetlands with only physically remote hydrologic connections to jurisdictional waters. Under the proposed definition, ecological connections alone would not provide a basis for including physically isolated wetlands within the phrase “The Waters of the United States.”

(the proposed definition) of “adjacent wetlands” and the categorical treatment of jurisdiction over wetlands adjacent to tributaries as proposed in informed by, though not dictated by, science.

Wetlands separated from other “waters of the United States” by upland or by dikes, barriers, or similar structures would not be adjacent and would not be jurisdictional wetlands under the proposed rule…

That last one is interesting. Several statements in the proposed Rule seem to suggest that even a wetland physically adjacent to a stream or lake will not be regulated, as long as you put up a barrier (like an earthen dam or berm) between the wetland and the adjacent WOTUS. You could even put in a pipe or culvert (because the wetland is so very wet…) and yet it’s no longer, legally, a wetland.

DSC_0119I encourage you to read the proposed Rule yourself, and/or those analyses linked above. And then, please consider weighing in with a comment on the proposed Rule. As you might expect, I plan to do so. This is a time we need to speak up. Our Government needs to know that we value wetlands (whether they do, or not). We must remind our public servants that whether a wetland is physically adjacent to a stream or not, it nevertheless DOES affect the hydrology of that stream. The wetland absorbs water that otherwise (even if by groundwater, rather than a surface connection) would contribute to downstream flooding. The wetland improves the water quality of the downstream WOTUS. So-called “isolated wetlands” simply aren’t isolated, and they do important work…but only if we allow them to exist!!

And beyond reacting to this specific government action, I hope we can think about the long-term future of our wetlands. Personally, I would like our Nation and its government to provide effective and uniform legal protection for all of our aquatic resources, including wetlands. I certainly believe in making that task as straightforward as possible for everyone  involved: landowners, regulators, and environmental professionals. How do we serve our citizens best? Protecting wetlands is surely part of that…so how do we get it done??

Change of Pace, Change of Venue

Hello Friends!

I appreciate your support of my journey across Iowa. So far I have profiled wetlands in 85 of Iowa’s 99 counties. Every “Wetlands Wednesday” beginning in April 2017 has seen a new blog post, with most weeks adding a new county to the list. It’s been great fun!!

DSC_0430But work demands and some international travel force me to take a semi-hiatus. I’ll still post an essay, photo, or news from time to time, but not as regularly as before. And a few posts might be from outside Iowa.

I hope you’ll join me for these coming posts, and also watch for a blog post announcing my resumption of the 99wetlands quest…I’ll clearly label it “Back in IOWA!” and give you an update on the project.

This might be a good time to suggest subscribing (“following”) this blog—each post will arrive in your Inbox whenever I get them published—you’ll never miss a thing! And of course I’d love to read your comments and questions. Perhaps you could also refer a friend to this blog? There’s plenty more fun to be had, so I hope to reach out to you again, soon. Stay swampy, friends!!

–PaulDSC_0233